Basic Linux Terms For Beginners

Hello guys! Most of people start with windows on their computer but when they switch to Linux they get confused. Like what is a root user? How to install a program in Linux? Why my computer doesn’t crash anymore?
Well today we are going to discuss some of the very basic terms related to Linux.


A software thats manages the boot process of your computer is called a bootloader. A bootloader starts your operating system and other required process. Here is a screenshot of GRUB bootloader

Desktop Environment

A desktop environment is basically the thing with which the user really interacts. You can loosely call it a theme (actually its more than that) which decides how your Graphical User Interface looks like. You can change the whole interface with DE, like your menu, favourites bar, task bar, etc. There are many desktop environments to choose from like Unity, GNOME, Cinnamon, Enlightenment, KDE, XFCE, etc. Here’s how the GNOME desktop environment looks like

what is desktop enviorment


Shell is basically a command line user interface which can execute commands entered by the user to perform different actions.


Terminal or more precisely a Terminal Emulator is program which lets you interact with the shell. There are many terminal emulators available e.g. xterm, rxvt, konsole, kvt, gnome-terminal, nxterm, and eterm etc.  Here’s a screenshot of gnome-terminal emulator:


Bash is a type of shell. As there are different types of desktop environments, there are different type of shells too. Full form of bash is Bourne-Again SHell.

A bash shell understands a scripting language which is called bash scripting language. You can write your own scripts for bash.


A kernel is the core part of an operating system which has complete control over the hardware. It manages CPU and memory usages, it handles devices and drivers. It acts as a interpreter between applications and hardware as it helps applications to make use of hardware. Linux is a kernel while Ubuntu, Kali Linux and Fedora are operating systems.


In previous article, we learned that root is a directory which contains all other directories but it has a different meaning too. If a user has permission to access all commands and files, it has said to be a root user which is similar to the administration user in windows.


A daemon is a program which runs as a background process without actually being in direct control of the user. It waits for certain actions to be performed by by a user to do something.

Well that’s all for now. There is a lot more to understand, to explore but we will do that some other day.
Till then, Keep Learning! Keep Hacking!

Also Read: Local File Inclusion (LFI) : Complete Tutorial

About the author


I am Somdev Sangwan also known as D3V. I am n00b and I love computers and hacking. I am a python freak and your friendly neighborhood hacker.


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